The countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be low-lying countries, which are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise, and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But prosperous nations, like the United States, are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly, and the impoverished – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change. NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments for the historic 2015 agreement and strengthened initiatives to reduce pollution. The EU and its Member States are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries, which have escaped at least 55% of global emissions, had to deposit their instruments of ratification. As host and president of COP21, France is committed to supporting a multilateral negotiation process and listening to all stakeholders to reach an agreement: the Paris Agreement establishes a global framework to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to well below 2°C and making efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. It also aims to strengthen the capacity of countries to cope with the effects of climate change and to support them in their efforts. The 197 “negotiating parties” have committed to developing strategies for the long-term development of low greenhouse gas emissions. This is the first time that a universal agreement has been reached in the fight against climate change. The agreement includes a commitment by all countries to reduce emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their climate change and adaptation efforts, while creating a framework to transparently monitor and report on countries` climate goals.

In 1992, President George H.W. Bush and 107 other heads of state adopted a series of environmental agreements at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limit values for greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but rather establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. The UN Report warns that the terrible effects of climate change will come sooner than many expected. Here`s why we need to follow the report`s advice and why every tonne of emission reductions can make a difference. At present, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have consolidated their climate proposals with formal approval, including the United States for now. The only major emitting countries that have not yet formally joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran. More than encouraging countries to fight climate change The IPCC finds that climate change is limited only by “substantial and sustainable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions”.

While one can discuss the benefits of using a single global temperature threshold to present dangerous climate change, the scientific community is of the opinion that any increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be an unacceptable risk – which could lead to mass extinctions, more severe droughts and hurricanes and an Arctic downpour. . . .